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A physical/mathematical model of the system under consideration is derived and implemented in the simulation environment. The development of the control software is done based on simulations with the help of this plant model. This approach is indispensable for us and enables the solution of complex problems.
Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) is a development method for efficient controller synthesis from the system idea to the first prototype. The method includes various steps, from modeling to system analysis and control design to implementation and functional testing. More information can be found here.
According to the ISO 26262 automotive standard, safety-critical systems, such as electromechanical steering systems, are subject to particularly high requirements for their correct operating function and, as a result, against failure due to hardware or software errors.
In order to fulfill this, safety-certified electronic components are used, which have been proven to have a particularly low probability of failure. In addition, specific software algorithms permanently monitor the system behavior. As soon as a safety-critical error is detected, the system, by taking suitable measures, changes itself to a state that is safe for the system, its surroundings and, if applicable, its occupants within a very short time.
A distinction is made here between pre-development and series development. In pre-development, we use the mechatronic development process, which provides an optimal prototype as a result in an extremely time- and cost-efficient manner. In series development the proven V-model as well as industry-specific standards such as Automotive SPICE and ISO 26262 are applied.
With Model-in-the-Loop (MiL), the ECU software available as a model is simulated and tested purely virtually with an environment model. In this way, the developed software can be tested in detail at an early stage. The ECU code generated from the model is then simulated using Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) and compared with the results from the MiL. The goal is always the agreement of the results from MiL and SiL.
The state space representation is a mathematical form of description of dynamic systems in the time domain. The representation is in matrix-vector notation using first-order ordinary differential equations, which describe the derivatives of the system states, as well as the equations for the system outputs. In modern control engineering, the state space representation forms the basis for the analysis and synthesis of state controllers and state observers.
Kalman filters can be used in a variety of ways. This includes the observation or estimation of non-measurable system states, changing system parameters or external disturbances as well as the filtering of noisy measured variables. Originally developed for purely linear systems, the Extended and Unscented Kalman filter are also available for non-linear systems.
Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are nowadays usually controlled in a field-oriented manner. This means that the controller works in the rotating coordinate system of the rotor and is therefore oriented in the direction of the rotor field or the magnetic flux. The necessary transformations (e.g. of the motor currents) take place with the help of the rotor angle. The transformation results in DC variables at constant operating points, while the motor is actually operated with AC variables. Due to the field orientation, it is also possible to distinguish very well between flux and torque-generating currents, which enables extremely efficient and dynamic control. More informationen can be found here.
In modern applications, asynchronous or induction motors are controlled in a field-oriented manner. In contrast to synchronous motors, the rotor does not rotate synchronously with the impressed rotating field of the stator. The rotor angle cannot therefore be used for the transformations. Instead, the estimation of the rotor flux oriented angle is necessary. With this angle, field-oriented control and all the benefits associated with it can also be used with asynchronous motors. More informationen can be found here.
ECU stands for Electronic Control Unit. These are complex electronic components that are installed in various systems such as aircraft, vehicles and household appliances and take on a wide variety of tasks depending on the application. The control units are connected to sensors and actuators and networked with each other in more complex systems for the purpose of data exchange.
There is usually a programmable microcontroller (digital core) with CPU, RAM, ROM, sometimes paired with digital logic components (FPGA, CPLD) in an ECU. Other electronic assemblies around the digital core are mostly used for signal input and output, filtering, level adjustment, amplification or diagnostics.
Drivers and digital output stages for connecting valves or electric motors, for example, may also be located in the electronic control unit. Internal ECU sensors are also often used to measure and monitor temperatures, currents and voltages.
An inverter represents an electronic device that carries out an essential conversion process: the transformation from direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). This change is proving to be essential in a wide range of applications in which numerous electrical devices and household appliances operate using alternating current. In contrast, various energy sources such as solar cells or batteries primarily generate direct current.
An inverter is used in electric motors to electronically control the speed and power of the motor. These devices are also known as frequency converters or VFDs (Variable Frequency Drives). The inverter controls frequency and voltage and thus the speed of the motor by adjusting the electrical energy supplied. This allows precise control and efficient use of the motor in various applications.
Gerber data is a special type of files used in the electronics industry. They include a digital representation of circuit board layouts and pinpoint the physical design and placement of electronic components on a circuit board. The production data is therefore available in a standardized format and is independent of the design software used.
ISO 16750 is an international standard that specifies environmental conditions and test methods for electronic systems in motor vehicles. It ensures that these systems can withstand the extreme conditions such as temperature changes, vibrations, electromagnetic radiation and other challenges in vehicle operation. This contributes to the safety and reliability of vehicles.
A bootloader is a small program or special piece of software that resides in most computers and microcontrollers. Its main function is to load and run a device's operating system or application software as soon as the device is turned on. The operating system or the application software can often be reprogrammed with the help of the bootloader. This is particularly common in embedded systems.
An A2L file, also known as an ASAM MCD-2 MC file, is a standard file format in the automotive industry. It stands for "ASAM (Association for Standardization of Automation and Measuring Systems) MCD-2 Measurement and Calibration Data" and is often used in conjunction with software tools and diagnostic systems for the development and calibration of vehicle control units.
An A2L file contains metadata and descriptions for communicating with an ECU in a vehicle. These files are used by developers, engineers and technicians to support the calibration and diagnosis of vehicle control devices.